Evaluating Domestic Wastewater Treatment Efficiency of Field Scale Hybrid Flow Constructed Wetland in Series

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur and 177005, India


Constructed wetlands (CWs) are man-made systems designed to treat a range of residential, commercial, and industrial wastewaters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater treatment systems using constructed wetlands. The effectiveness of removing chemical and physical pollutants was also evaluated. The setup consisted of a hybrid flow system composed of upflow constructed wetland and a horizontal flow constructed wetland connected in series that is used for primary treatment of the influent of domestic wastewater. Two systems were analyzed: one cultivated with the ornamental species Canna Indica, and one cultivated with the cattail Cymbopogon flexuosus. It consisted of two treatment sections consisting of two plant species Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass – first CW) and Canna xalapensis Horan (Canna Indica – second CW). The water quality parameters i.e., BOD, COD, TSS were analyzed according to APHA (American Public Health Association) by daily sampling. The CW was monitored for the quality of wastewater inflows and outflows and nutrient accumulation in plants. Results showed that the maximum COD removal for Lemon Grass and Canna Indica beds were 75% and 70% respectively at 200mg/L COD loading in the CW setup over a six-month period respectively. The maximum BOD removal found in Lemon Grass and Canna Indica beds were 73% and 64% respectively at a feed concentration of 200mg/L COD. Both the CWs together as one unit showed similar rates of TSS removal irrespective of the type of wetland plant species and were more efficient in treating wastewater.


Main Subjects

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